Money under fire: The ethics of revenue generation for oppositional news outlets

Cook, Clare Elizabeth orcid iconORCID: 0000-0001-5063-6013 (2016) Money under fire: The ethics of revenue generation for oppositional news outlets. The International Journal of Communication Ethics, 13 (No.2/3). pp. 66-81.

[thumbnail of Published version] PDF (Published version) - Published Version
Restricted to Repository staff only
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.


Official URL:


This paper critically assesses the ethical challenges not-forprofit oppositional news outlets face when generating revenues. Both media in exile (out-of-country news outlets feeding independent information into the country of origin) and those in restrictive environments (in-country providing counter-information) often rely on media development funding to survive. Yet they are increasingly expected to diversify revenue as they wean themselves off grant dependency. As a result, tension arises between the necessities to generate revenues while continuing journalism in some of the most challenging environments globally. Building on empirical data, the author reflects on the ethical implications of three main revenue categories being used:grant funding, commercial revenues and donations. The paper finds oppositional news organisations are faced with a unique set of pragmatic challenges that prompts an ethical value set which oscillates between entrenched dependence on grant funding, commercial reluctance and commercial reconciliation.

Repository Staff Only: item control page