The pre-1914 British golf club exhibited bonding social capital formation rather than bridging, seeking to exclude rather than include. Generally the course, but especially the clubhouse, were sites for males of similar social background to meet in a homosocial environment, one protected by cost and membership policies. Segmentation of clubs within the same geographical area allowed for further social differentiation between men from different occupational groups. Numerous golfing societies also brought men together with a common business interest. However female and working-class players were accommodated without breaking down the male, middle-class dominance by parent-club development of separate ‘ladies’ sections and artisan clubs. Nevertheless restrictions on when and where they could play served to segregate them from the full-fee paying male club members.
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