Transmission and Emission of Solar Energetic Particles in Semi-transparent Shocks.

Kocharov, Leon, Laitinen, Timo Lauri Mikael orcid iconORCID: 0000-0002-7719-7783, Usoskin, Ilya and Vainio, Rami (2014) Transmission and Emission of Solar Energetic Particles in Semi-transparent Shocks. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 787 (2). L21.

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While major solar energetic particle (SEP) events are associated with coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven shocks in solar wind, accurate SEP measurements reveal that more than one component of energetic ions exist in the beginning of the events. Solar electromagnetic emissions, including nuclear gamma-rays, suggest that high-energy ions could also be accelerated by coronal shocks, and some of those particles could contribute to SEPs in interplanetary space. However, the CME-driven shock in solar wind is thought to shield any particle source beneath the shock because of the strong scattering required for the diffusive shock acceleration. In this Letter, we consider a shock model that allows energetic particles from the possible behind-shock source to appear in front of the shock simultaneously with SEPs accelerated by the shock itself. We model the energetic particle transport in directions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field in a spherical shock expanding through the highly turbulent magnetic sector with an embedded quiet magnetic tube, which makes the shock semi-transparent for energetic particles. The model energy spectra and time profiles of energetic ions escaping far upstream of the shock are similar to the profiles observed during the first hour of some gradual SEP events.

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