Methanol maser associated outflows: detection statistics and properties

de Villiers, H. M., Chrysostomou, A., Thompson, M. A., Ellingsen, S. P., Urquhart, J. S., Breen, S. L., Burton, M. G., Csengeri, T. and Ward-Thompson, D. orcid iconORCID: 0000-0003-1140-2761 (2014) Methanol maser associated outflows: detection statistics and properties. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 444 (1). pp. 566-585. ISSN 0035-8711

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We have selected the positions of 54 6.7 GHz methanol masers from the Methanol Multibeam Survey catalogue, covering a range of longitudes between 20° and 34° of the Galactic plane. These positions were mapped in the J = 3-2 transition of both the 13CO and C18O lines. A total of 58 13CO emission peaks are found in the vicinity of these maser positions. We search for outflows around all 13CO peaks, and find evidence for high-velocity gas in all cases, spatially resolving the red and blue outflow lobes in 55 cases. Of these sources, 44 have resolved kinematic distances, and are closely associated with the 6.7 GHz masers, a subset referred to as Methanol Maser Associated Outflows (MMAOs). We calculate the masses of the clumps associated with each peak using 870 mum continuum emission from the ATLASGAL survey. A strong correlation is seen between the clump mass and both outflow mass and mechanical force, lending support to models in which accretion is strongly linked to outflow. We find that the scaling law between outflow activity and clump masses observed for low-mass objects, is also followed by the MMAOs in this study, indicating a commonality in the formation processes of low-mass and high-mass stars.

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