Circulating MicroRNA Biomarkers for Glioma and Predicting Response to Therapy

Tumilson, Charlotte A., Lea, Robert W., Alder, Jane E. orcid iconORCID: 0000-0003-4463-0349 and Shaw, Lisa (2014) Circulating MicroRNA Biomarkers for Glioma and Predicting Response to Therapy. Molecular Neurobiology, 50 (2). pp. 545-558. ISSN 0893-7648

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The need for glioma biomarkers with improved sensitivity and specificity has sparked research into short non-coding RNA known as microRNA (miRNA). Altered miRNA biogenesis and expression in glioma plays a vital role in important signaling pathways associated with a range of tumor characteristics including gliomagenesis, invasion, and malignancy. This review will discuss current research into the role of miRNA in glioma and altered miRNA expression in biofluids as candidate biomarkers with a particular focus on glioblastoma, the most malignant form of glioma. The isolation and characterization of miRNA using cellular and molecular biology techniques from the circulation of glioma patients could potentially be used for improved diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment decisions. We aim to highlight the links between research into miRNA function, their use as biomarkers, and how these biomarkers can be used to predict response to therapy. Furthermore, increased understanding of miRNA in glioma biology through biomarker research has led to the development of miRNA therapeutics which could restore normal miRNA expression and function and improve the prognosis of glioma patients. A panel of important miRNA biomarkers for glioma in various biofluids discovered to date has been summarized here. There is still a need, however, to standardize techniques for biomarker characterization to bring us closer to clinically relevant miRNA-based diagnostic and therapeutic signatures. A clinically validated biomarker panel has potential to improve time to diagnosis, predicting response to treatment and ultimately the prognosis of glioma patients.

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