Perceived control, hedonic tone, and performance in elite shooters

Robazza, Claudio, Bortoli, Laura, Filho, Edson orcid iconORCID: 0000-0002-8548-4651, Hanin, Yuri and Bertollo, Maurizio (2016) Perceived control, hedonic tone, and performance in elite shooters. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 87 (3). pp. 284-294. ISSN 0270-1367

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Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the individual’s dynamics of perceived control and hedonic tone over time, with respect to the four performance states as conceptualized within the multi-action plan (MAP) model. We expected to find idiosyncratic and differentiated trends over time in the scores of perceived control and hedonic tone, typified by switches among two optimal and two suboptimal types of processing during performance. Method: Ten elite-level shooters participated in the study. They were asked to identify the most relevant, idiosyncratic core component of their shooting action, and perform 120 shots distanced 10 m from the target. Subjective accounts of perceived control and hedonic tone of the core component of action were assessed prior to and after each shot. We used a probabilistic approach to derive the four performance categories according to 2 × 2 interactions of perceived control and performance, and hedonic tone and performance. Results: Logistic ordinal regression analysis enabled the identification of four idiosyncratic performance types for each athlete with respect to perceived control and hedonic tone intensity scores. Within and between individual differences in intensity bandwidth and probability levels were apparent across the four performance types. Changes among four types of processing were also observed during performance. Conclusion(s): Consistent with the MAP model conceptualization, findings provided support for the different patterns of perceived control and hedonic tone intensity scores during performance. Results suggest applied arguments for using action- and emotion-centered strategies to help athletes in reaching and sustaining optimal performance states.

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