Phoebe 2.0 – Triple and multiple systems

Pavlovski, K., Conroy, K., Degroote, P., Hambleton, Kelly, Bloemen, S., Pablo, H., Giammarco, J., Prša, A., Tkachenko, A. et al (2013) Phoebe 2.0 – Triple and multiple systems. EAS Publications Series, 64 . pp. 295-298. ISSN 1633-4760

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Some close binary formation theories require the presence of a third body so that the binary orbit can shrink over time. Tidal friction and Kozai cycles transfer energy from the binary to its companion, resulting in a close inner binary and a wide third body orbit. Spectroscopy and imaging studies have found 40% of binaries with periods less than 10 days, and 96% with periods less than 3 days, have a wide tertiary companion. With recent advancements in large photometric surveys, we are now beginning to detect many of these triple systems by observing tertiary eclipses or through the effect they have on the eclipse timing variations (ETVs) of the inner-binary. In the sample of 2600 Kepler EBs, we have detected the possible presence of a third body in ∼20%, including several circumbinary planets. Some multiple systems are quite dynamical and feature disappearing and reappearing eclipses, apsidal motion, and large disruptions to the inner-binary. phoebe is a freely available binary modeling code which can dynamically model all of these systems, allowing us to better test formation theories and probe the physics of eclipsing binaries.

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