Pharmacological Effects of Asiatic acid in Glioblastoma Cells under Hypoxia

Thakor, Flourina Kumar, Wan, Ka-Wai, Welsby, Philip John orcid iconORCID: 0000-0002-2110-8198 and Welsby, Gail orcid iconORCID: 0000-0001-9901-7627 (2017) Pharmacological Effects of Asiatic acid in Glioblastoma Cells under Hypoxia. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry . pp. 1-12. ISSN 0300-8177

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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Despite current treatment options including surgery followed by radiation and chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) and cisplatin, the median survival rate remains low (<16 months). Combined with increasing drug resistance and the inability of some compounds to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB), novel compounds are being sought for the treatment of this disease. Here, we aimed to examine the pharmacological effect of Asiatic acid (AA) in glioblastoma under hypoxia.
To investigate the effects of AA on cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis and wound healing, SVG p12 fetal glia and U87-MG grade IV glioblastoma cells were cultured under normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (1% O2) conditions.
In normoxia, AA reduced cell viability in U87-MG cells in a time and concentration-dependent manner. A significant decrease in viability, compared to cisplatin, was observed following 2hrs of AA treatment with no significant changes in cell proliferation or cell cycle progression observed. Under hypoxia, a significantly greater number of cells underwent apoptosis in comparison to cisplatin. While cisplatin showed a reduction in wound healing in normoxia, a significantly greater reduction was observed following AA treatment. An overall reduction in wound healing was observed under hypoxia.
The results of this study show that AA has cytotoxic effects on glioma cell lines and has the potential to become an alternative treatment for glioblastoma.

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