Protein kinase C and cardiac dysfunction: a review

Singh, Raphael, Cummings, E, Pantos, C and Singh, Jaipaul orcid iconORCID: 0000-0002-3200-3949 (2017) Protein kinase C and cardiac dysfunction: a review. Heart Failure Reviews, 22 (6). pp. 843-859. ISSN 1382-4147

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Heart failure (HF) is a physiological state in which cardiac output is insufficient to meet the needs of the body. It is a clinical syndrome characterized by impaired ability of the left ventricle to either fill or eject blood efficiently. HF is a disease of multiple aetiologies leading to progressive cardiac dysfunction and it is the leading cause of deaths in both developed and developing countries. HF is responsible for about 73,000 deaths in the UK each year. In the USA, HF affects 5.8 million people and 550,000 new cases are diagnosed annually. Cardiac remodelling (CD), which plays an important role in pathogenesis of HF, is viewed as stress response to an index event such as myocardial ischaemia or imposition of mechanical load leading to a series of structural and functional changes in the viable myocardium. Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes are a family of serine/threonine kinases. PKC is a central enzyme in the regulation of growth, hypertrophy, and mediators of signal transduction pathways. In response to circulating hormones, activation of PKC triggers a multitude of intracellular events influencing multiple physiological processes in the heart, including heart rate, contraction, and relaxation. Recent research implicates PKC activation in the pathophysiology of a number of cardiovascular disease states. Few reports are available that examine PKC in normal and diseased human hearts. This review describes the structure, functions, and distribution of PKCs in the healthy and diseased heart with emphasis on the human heart and, also importantly, their regulation in heart failure.

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