Pathogenesis and treatment of callus in the diabetic foot

Arosi, I, Hiner, G and Rajbhandari, Satyan N. (2016) Pathogenesis and treatment of callus in the diabetic foot. Current Diabetes Reviews, 12 (3). pp. 179-183. ISSN 1573-3998

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Diabetic foot is one of the most common long term complications of diabetes. The risk of developing a foot ulcer is significantly increased when a patient presents with a callus. Callus develops due to various reasons, of which, the most important in people with diabetes is peripheral neuropathy. Motor neuropathy leads to deformity and sensory neuropathy causes lack of sensation, which results in persistent abnormal pressure on the foot. The cells of skin react to it by increasing keratinization and turns into a callus, which predisposes to foot ulceration. However, there is a lack of research in the field of callus. The link between hyperkeratosis, insulin and hyperglycaemia is not fully explored. There is also a lack of research on the relationship between genetic defects of hyperkeratosis, and the risk of developing a diabetic foot ulcer. There is scope for further research in this area, such as exploring whether development of callus is an individual risk factor, and whether glycaemic control or its treatment has any relationship with callus formation. The research around the genetic defects of hyperkeratosis may lead to identification of those, with diabetes, who may have increased risk of developing a foot ulcer.

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