The role of resveratrol on skeletal muscle cell differentiation and myotube hypertrophy during glucose restriction

Dugdale, Hannah, Hughes, David C, Allan, Robert orcid iconORCID: 0000-0002-9021-8737, Deane, Colleen, Coxon, Christopher R, Morton, James P, Stewart, Claire E and Sharples, Adam P (2018) The role of resveratrol on skeletal muscle cell differentiation and myotube hypertrophy during glucose restriction. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 444 (1-2). pp. 109-123. ISSN 0300-8177

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Glucose restriction (GR) impairs muscle cell differentiation and evokes myotube atrophy. Resveratrol treatment in skeletal
muscle cells improves inflammatory-induced reductions in skeletal muscle cell differentiation. We therefore hypothesised
that resveratrol treatment would improve muscle cell differentiation and myotube hypertrophy in differentiating C2C12
myoblasts and mature myotubes during GR. Glucose restriction at 0.6 g/L (3.3 mM) blocked differentiation and myotube
hypertrophy versus high-glucose (4.5 g/L or 25 mM) differentiation media (DM) conditions universally used for myoblast
culture. Resveratrol (10 μM) treatment increased SIRT1 phosphorylation in DM conditions, yet did not improve differentiation
when administered to differentiating myoblasts in GR conditions. Resveratrol did evoke increases in hypertrophy of mature
myotubes under DM conditions with corresponding elevated Igf-I and Myhc7 gene expression, coding for the ‘slow’ type I
MYHC protein isoform. Inhibition of SIRT1 via EX-527 administration (100 nM) also reduced myotube diameter and area
in DM conditions and resulted in lower gene expression of Myhc 1, 2 and 4 coding for ‘intermediate’ and ‘faster’ IIx, IIa
and IIb protein isoforms, respectively. Resveratrol treatment did not appear to modulate phosphorylation of energy-sensing
protein AMPK or protein translation initiator P70S6K. Importantly, in mature myotubes, resveratrol treatment was able to
ameliorate reduced myotube growth in GR conditions over an acute 24-h period, but not over 48–72 h. Overall, resveratrol
evoked myotube hypertrophy in DM conditions while favouring ‘slower’ Myhc gene expression and acutely ameliorated
impaired myotube growth observed during glucose restriction.

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