Women Scientists and the Freshwater Biological Association, 1929-1950

Toogood, Mark D. orcid iconORCID: 0000-0003-2403-0338, Waterton, Claire F.J. and Heim, M. Wallace (2020) Women Scientists and the Freshwater Biological Association, 1929-1950. Archives of Natural History, 47 (1). pp. 16-28. ISSN 0260-9541

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3366/anh.2020.0618


In the early to mid-twentieth century, women had limited opportunities to develop and practice as scientists and were subject to being seen as extraordinary women precisely because of their scientific commitment rather than on equal terms as their male counterparts. Opportunities in freshwater science arose in England in a number of interconnected institutions centred on the Freshwater Biological Association (FBA) founded in 1929. Several women scientists pioneering in their fields were nurtured by the FBA, such as early freshwater researchers, Penelope Jenkin, Marie Rosenberg and Winifred Frost, the last two being the first professional women naturalists at the FBA. Other researchers who achieved distinction in their field were also products of the FBA and its imperial and university network: Rosemary Lowe, Winifred Pennington, Kate Ricardo, Carmel Humphries and Maud Godward, for example.

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