Canonical sound fields in the frequency-domain theory of supersonic leading-edge noise

Powles, Christopher orcid iconORCID: 0000-0001-9175-2328 and Chapman, C.J. (2019) Canonical sound fields in the frequency-domain theory of supersonic leading-edge noise. Wave Motion, 86 . pp. 125-136. ISSN 0165-2125

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This paper determines the three-dimensional structure of certain single-frequency canonical sound fields occurring in the theory of blade–vortex interaction when the flow velocity relative to the blade is supersonic. A relative velocity of this magnitude occurs at the outer part of the fan blades in an aeroengine, at which the incoming vorticity has either been ingested from the atmosphere or created in the aeroengine itself. The sound fields analysed are those produced by the leading edge of a flat-plate blade at zero angle of attack on being struck by a gust which is either (i) localized along the span, or (ii) non-localized but discontinuous. The canonical gusts of type (i) have either a delta-function or Gaussian shape, and those of type (ii) are either anti-symmetric or described by a Heaviside function; these gusts give rise to the four basic canonical sound fields. The paper also analyses a fifth sound field, produced by a single-frequency top-hat gust. This sound field has a complex structure involving aspects of both (i) and (ii), but can nevertheless be analysed in terms of the canonical sound fields. The main results of the paper are exact and approximate analytical formulae giving the dependence of the acoustic field on gust-shape and flow parameters, and also a simple formula which is ideal for numerical work. The last of these is used to assess in detail the numerical accuracy of all the approximate formulae, which are of either Fresnel or Keller type. A key result is that Keller-type formulae, representing sound rays produced in accord with the geometrical theory of diffraction, have a very wide range of validity. A companion paper (Chapman & Powles 2019) determines the canonical sound fields in the corresponding time-domain theory.

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