Standardization of complex biologically derived spectrochemical datasets

Morais, Camilo L M orcid iconORCID: 0000-0003-2573-787X, Paraskevaidi, Maria, Cui, Li, Fullwood, Nigel J, Isabelle, Martin, Lima, Kássio M G, Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L, Sreedhar, Hari, Trevisan, Júlio et al (2019) Standardization of complex biologically derived spectrochemical datasets. Nature Protocols, 14 . pp. 1546-1577. ISSN 1754-2189

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Spectroscopic techniques such as Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy are used to study interactions of light with biological materials. This interaction forms the basis of many analytical assays used in disease screening/diagnosis, microbiological studies, and forensic/environmental investigations. Advantages of spectrochemical analysis are its low cost, minimal sample preparation, non-destructive nature and substantially accurate results. However, an urgent need exists for repetition and validation of these methods in large-scale studies and across different research groups, which would bring the method closer to clinical and/or industrial implementation. For this to succeed, it is important to understand and reduce the effect of random spectral alterations caused by inter-individual, inter-instrument and/or inter-laboratory variations, such as variations in air humidity and CO levels, and aging of instrument parts. Thus, it is evident that spectral standardization is critical to the widespread adoption of these spectrochemical technologies. By using calibration transfer procedures, in which the spectral response of a secondary instrument is standardized to resemble the spectral response of a primary instrument, different sources of variation can be normalized into a single model using computational-based methods, such as direct standardization (DS) and piecewise direct standardization (PDS); therefore, measurements performed under different conditions can generate the same result, eliminating the need for a full recalibration. Here, we have constructed a protocol for model standardization using different transfer technologies described for FTIR spectrochemical applications. This is a critical step toward the construction of a practical spectrochemical analysis model for daily routine analysis, where uncertain and random variations are present.

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