Intelligent autonomous treatment of bedwetting using non-invasive wearable advanced mechatronics systems and MEMS sensors

Kuru, Kaya orcid iconORCID: 0000-0002-4279-4166, Ansell, Darren orcid iconORCID: 0000-0003-2818-3315, De Goede, Christian, Jones, Martin, Caswell, Noreen orcid iconORCID: 0000-0001-6832-6822, Leather, Peter, Lancaster, Andrew, Sugden, Paula, Briggs, Eleanor et al (2020) Intelligent autonomous treatment of bedwetting using non-invasive wearable advanced mechatronics systems and MEMS sensors. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, 58 (4). pp. 943-965. ISSN 0140-0118

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Post-void alarm systems to monitor bed wetting in Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) have been deemed unsatisfactory. The aim in this study is to develop a safe, comfortable and non-invasive pre-void wearable alarm and associated technology using advanced mechatronics. Each stage of development includes patient and public involvement and engagement (PPI). The early stage of the development involved children with and without nocturnal enuresis (NE) (and parents) who were tested at a hospital under the supervision of physicians, radiologists, psychologists, and nurses. The readings were simultaneously compared to B-mode images and measurements, acquired from a conventional ultrasound device, and were found to correlate highly. The results showed that determining imminent voiding need is viable using non-invasive sensors. Following on from "proof of concept", a bespoke advanced mechatronics device has been created. The device houses custom electronics, an ultrasound system, intelligent software, a user-friendly smartphone application, bedside alarm box and a dedicated undergarment, along with a self-adhesive gel pad - designed to keep the MEMS sensors aligned with the abdomen. Testing of the device with phantoms and volunteers has been successful in determining bladder volume and associated voiding need. Five miniaturized, and therefore more ergonomic, versions of the device are being developed, with an enabled connection to the cloud platform for location independent control and monitoring. Thereafter, the enhanced device will be tested with children with NE at their homes for 14 weeks, to gain feedback relating to wearability and data collection involving the cloud platform.

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