Hypertensive Cardiomyopathy: Diagnostic Approach and Clinical Differentiation from Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Elkilany, Galaleldin Nagib, Allah, Sherif Baath, Fedacko, Jan, Singh, Jaipaul orcid iconORCID: 0000-0002-3200-3949, Singh, Ram B, Nanda, Navin C and Salama, Mai (2019) Hypertensive Cardiomyopathy: Diagnostic Approach and Clinical Differentiation from Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Journal of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Therapy, 15 (4). ISSN 2474-7580

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.19080/JOCCT.2019.15.555919


Hypertensive Cardiomyopathy (HTN-CM) is a structural cardiac disorder generally accompanied by concentric or eccentric Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) associated with diastolic or/and systolic dysfunction in patients with persistent systemic hypertension. It occurs in the absence of other cardiac diseases capable of causing myocardial hypertrophy or cardiac dysfunction. Long standing arterial hypertension (HTN) leads to structural and functional myocardial abnormalities resulting in myocardial ischemia, fibrosis, and hypertrophy. HTN-CM is predominantly a disease of impaired relaxation rather than impaired contractility, although subtle myocardial systolic abnormalities could be detected recently by Global Longitudinal Systolic Strain (GLS) Speckle Tracking Echocardiography (STE). Importantly, the accompanying LVH is itself a risk factor for mortality and morbidity and is considered an independent predictor for Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD). Therefore, early detection of LVH development in patients with Hypertensive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HTN-CM) is crucial for optimal treatment. In addition to pathological findings, echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging are ideal tools for the diagnosis of HTN-CM and can differentiate it from Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM). Timely diagnosis of this condition and utilization of appropriate treatment are required to improve morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients. This review presents an overview of utilization of multidisciplinary imaging modalities approach for proper diagnosis of HTN-CM and its differentiation from HCM. Relevant article highlighted key points in differentiation of HTN-CM from HCM and the effects of hypertension on cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure development are discussed in clinical case study.

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