A study of factors influencing development of unofficial waste disposal sites in developing countries: A case study of Minna, Nigeria

Kassah, Salamatu (2020) A study of factors influencing development of unofficial waste disposal sites in developing countries: A case study of Minna, Nigeria. Post-Doctoral thesis, University of Central Lancashire.

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Implementation of effective waste management is a significant challenge facing government authorities of major cities in developing countries. The lack of resources and infrastructure has often led to the creation of unofficial waste disposal sites (UWDSs) within urban areas. Previous studies suggest that there is a lack of empirical understanding of the factors influencing the development of UWDSs and how to manage their impact on human health and the environment.
The aim of this research was to explore factors influencing the development of UWDSs in developing countries by drawing evidence from a case study of Minna, Nigeria. The study sought to utilise the concept of Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) in analysis of research findings and to recommend strategies to manage UWDSs in developing countries.
The research utilised a mixed-method research approach which involved geospatial mapping of waste disposal sites (141 UWDSs, 45 CWCPs, and 1 Landfill) in Minna metropolis, a resident survey (n=134 respondents), and interviews (n=14) with key stakeholders (e.g. waste management authorities).
Geospatial mapping indicated that UWDSs are unplanned, unregistered and unregulated, located within residential areas and created by residents for convenience and immediate disposal of their waste. In addition, results suggested that location (restricted to major roads due to ease of access for vehicular collection) and the limited number of official central waste collection points (CWCPs) and poor urban planning are contributory factors in the creation and abundance of UWDSs in Minna.
The findings of the public survey revealed the main challenges of waste management in Minna as: insufficient waste collection and infrequent services, location of CWCPs, corruption, ineffective policies, regulation and implementation, lack of public education and awareness, lack of public engagement/participation, poor public attitudes, and poor/old transportation facilities (e.g. trucks).
Interviews findings suggested that incorporating community leaders into waste management planning and delivery is vital to strengthen public involvement that can result in more effective waste management. In addition, stakeholder collaboration is important to enhance communication flow and monitoring for delivering effective and tailored services.
The findings from the study agreed with the elements of the ISWM model which considers stakeholder interest and involvement/participation in an enabling environment (such as accountability, policy/legal, financial, political, etc.) as key to achieving a sustainable waste management system. Utilising ISWM to conceptualise the findings of this study produced a workforce model putting current waste management strategies and findings into consideration. The proposed workforce model can be used/adapted by waste management authorities to improve current waste management practices and foster stakeholder collaboration in an enabling environment which will mitigate the creation of UWDSs within residential areas

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