Mechanistic effect modeling of earthworms in the context of pesticide risk assessment: Synthesis of the FORESEE Workshop.

Forbes, Valery E., Agatz, Annika, Ashauer, Roman, Butt, Kevin Richard orcid iconORCID: 0000-0003-0886-7795, Capowiez, Yvan, Duquesne, Sabine, Gregor, Ernst, Focks, Andreas, Gergs, Andre et al (2021) Mechanistic effect modeling of earthworms in the context of pesticide risk assessment: Synthesis of the FORESEE Workshop. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 17 (2). pp. 352-363. ISSN 1551-3777

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Earthworms are important ecosystem engineers, and assessment of the risk of plant protection products towards them is part of the European environmental risk assessment (ERA). In the current ERA scheme, exposure and effects are represented simplistically and are not well integrated, resulting in uncertainty when applying the results to ecosystems. Modeling offers a powerful tool to integrate the effects observed in lower tier laboratory studies with the environmental conditions under which exposure is expected in the field. This paper provides a summary of the FORESEE Workshop ((In)Field Organism Risk modEling by coupling Soil Exposure and Effect) held January 28‐30, 2020 in Düsseldorf, Germany. This workshop focussed on toxicokinetic‐toxicodynamic (TKTD) and population modeling of earthworms in the context of environmental risk assessment. The goal was to bring together scientists from different stakeholder groups to discuss the current state of soil invertebrate modeling, explore how earthworm modeling could be applied to risk assessments, and in particular how the different model outputs can be used in the tiered ERA approach. In support of these goals, the workshop aimed at addressing the requirements and concerns of the different stakeholder groups to support further model development. The modeling approach included four submodules to cover the most relevant processes for earthworm risk assessment: Environment, Behavior (feeding, vertical movement), TKTD, and Population. Four workgroups examined different aspects of the model with relevance for: Risk assessment, earthworm ecology, uptake routes, and cross‐species extrapolation and model testing. Here, we present the perspectives of each workgroup and highlight how the collaborative effort of participants from multidisciplinary backgrounds helped to establish common ground. In addition, we provide a list of recommendations for how earthworm TKTD modeling could address some of the uncertainties in current risk assessments for plant protection products.

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