Tetralogy of Fallot: stent palliation or neonatal repair?

Banjoko, Adeolu, Seyedzenouzi, Golnoush, Ashton, James, Hedayat, Fatemeh, Nixon, Henry, Tarmahomed, Abdulla, Ashry, Amr and Harky, Amer (2021) Tetralogy of Fallot: stent palliation or neonatal repair? Cardiology in the Young . ISSN 1047-9511

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1047951121000846


Surgical repair of Tetralogy of Fallot has excellent outcomes, with over 90% of patients alive at 30 years. The ideal time for surgical repair is between 3 and 11 months of age. However, the symptomatic neonate with Tetralogy of Fallot may require earlier intervention: either a palliative intervention (right ventricular outflow tract stent, ductal stent, balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty, or Blalock-Taussig shunt) followed by a surgical repair later on, or a complete surgical repair in the neonatal period. Indications for palliation include prematurity, complex anatomy, small pulmonary artery size, and comorbidities. Given that outcomes after right ventricular outflow tract stent palliation are particularly promising – there is low mortality and morbidity, and consistently increased oxygen saturations and increased pulmonary artery z-scores – it is now considered the first-line palliative option. Disadvantages of right ventricular outflow tract stenting include increased cardiopulmonary bypass time at later repair and the stent preventing pulmonary valve preservation. However, neonatal surgical repair is associated with increased short-term complications and hospital length of stay compared to staged repair. Both staged repair and primary repair appear to have similar long-term mortality and morbidity, but more evidence is needed assessing long-term outcomes for right ventricular outflow tract stent palliation patients.

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