Low-Dose vs Standard-Dose Alteplase in Acute Lacunar Ischemic Stroke

Zhou, Zien, Delcourt, Candice, Xia, Chao, Yoshimura, Sohei, Carcel, Cheryl, Torii-Yoshimura, Takako, You, Shoujiang, Malavera, Alejandra, Chen, Xiaoying et al (2021) Low-Dose vs Standard-Dose Alteplase in Acute Lacunar Ischemic Stroke. Neurology, 96 (11). e1512-e1526. ISSN 0028-3878

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Digital ID: http://doi.org/10.1212/wnl.0000000000011598


ObjectiveTo determine any differential efficacy and safety of low- vs standard-dose IV alteplase for lacunar vs nonlacunar acute ischemic stroke (AIS), we performed post hoc analyzes from the Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study (ENCHANTED) alteplase dose arm.MethodsIn a cohort of 3,297 ENCHANTED participants, we identified those with lacunar or nonlacunar AIS with different levels of confidence (definite/according to prespecified definitions based on clinical and adjudicated imaging findings. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations of lacunar AIS with 90-day outcomes (primary, modified Rankin Scale [mRS] scores 2–6; secondary, other mRS scores, intracerebral hemorrhage [ICH], and early neurologic deterioration or death) and treatment effects of low- vs standard-dose alteplase across lacunar and nonlacunar AIS with adjustment for baseline covariables.ResultsOf 2,588 participants with available imaging and clinical data, we classified cases as definite/probable lacunar (n = 490) or nonlacunar AIS (n = 2,098) for primary analyses. Regardless of alteplase dose received, lacunar AIS participants had favorable functional (mRS 2–6, adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.60 [0.47–0.77]) and other clinical or safety outcomes compared to participants with nonlacunar AIS. Low-dose alteplase (versus standard) had no differential effect on functional outcomes (mRS 2–6, 1.04 [0.87–1.24]) but reduced the risk of symptomatic ICH in all included participants. There were no differential treatment effects of low- vs standard-dose alteplase on all outcomes across lacunar and nonlacunar AIS (all pinteraction ≥0.07).ConclusionsWe found no evidence from the ENCHANTED trial that low-dose alteplase had any advantages over standard dose for definite/probable lacunar AIS.Classification of EvidenceThis study provides Class II evidence that for patients with lacunar AIS, low-dose alteplase had no additional benefit or safety over standard-dose alteplase.Clinical Trial RegistrationClinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01422616.

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