Stroke in India: a systematic review of the incidence, prevalence and case fatality

Jones, Stephanie orcid iconORCID: 0000-0001-9149-8606, Baqai, Kamran orcid iconORCID: 0000-0002-6190-3241, Clegg, Andrew orcid iconORCID: 0000-0001-8938-7819, Georgiou, Rachel, Harris, Cath, Holland, Emma-Joy orcid iconORCID: 0000-0003-3029-7573, Kalkonde, Yogeshwar, Lightbody, Catherine Elizabeth orcid iconORCID: 0000-0001-5016-3471, Maulik, Pallab BK et al (2022) Stroke in India: a systematic review of the incidence, prevalence and case fatality. International Journal of Stroke, 17 (2). pp. 132-140. ISSN 1747-4930

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Background: The burden of stroke is increasing in India; stroke is now the fourth leading cause of death and the fifth leading cause of disability. Previous research suggests that the incidence of stroke in India ranges between 105 and 152/100,000 people per year. However, there is a paucity of available data and a lack of uniform methods across published studies.
Aim: To identify high-quality prospective studies reporting the epidemiology of stroke in India. Summary of review: A search strategy was modified from the Cochrane Stroke Strategy and adapted for a range of bibliographic databases from January 1997 to August 2020. From 7,717 identified records, nine studies were selected for inclusion; three population-based registries, a further three population-based registries also using community-based ascertainment and three community-based door-to-door surveys. Studies represented the four cities of Mumbai, Trivandrum, Ludhiana, Kolkata, the state of Punjab and 12 villages of Baruipur in the state of West Bengal. The total population denominator was 22,479,509 and 11,654 (mean 1,294 SD 1,710) people were identified with incident stroke. Crude incidence of stroke ranged from 108 to 172/100,000 people per
year, crude prevalence from 26 to 757/100,000 people per year and one-month case fatality rates from 18% to 42%.
Conclusions: Further high-quality evidence is needed across India to guide stroke policy and inform the development and organisation of stroke services. Future researchers should consider the World Health Organisation STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS) framework, including longitudinal data collection, the inclusion of census population data and a combination of hospital-registry and comprehensive community ascertainment strategies to ensure complete stroke identification.

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