Nutrigenomics of Dietary Lipids

Bordoni, Laura, Petracci, Irene, Zhao, Fanrui, Min, Weihong, Pierella, Elisa, Assmann, Taís Silveira, Martinez, J Alfredo and Gabbianelli, Rosita (2021) Nutrigenomics of Dietary Lipids. Antioxidants, 10 (7). e994.

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Dietary lipids have a major role in nutrition, not only for their fuel value, but also as essential and bioactive nutrients. This narrative review aims to describe the current evidence on nutrigenomic effects of dietary lipids. Firstly, the different chemical and biological properties of fatty acids contained both in plant- and animal-based food are illustrated. A description of lipid bioavailability, bioaccessibility, and lipotoxicity is provided, together with an overview of the modulatory role of lipids as pro- or anti-inflammatory agents. Current findings concerning the metabolic impact of lipids on gene expression, epigenome, and gut microbiome in animal and human studies are summarized. Finally, the effect of the individual’s genetic make-up on lipid metabolism is described. The main goal is to provide an overview about the interaction between dietary lipids and the genome, by identifying and discussing recent scientific evidence, recognizing strengths and weaknesses, to address future investigations and fill the gaps in the current knowledge on metabolic impact of dietary fats on health.

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