Near-infrared spectroscopy of blood plasma with chemometrics towards HIV discrimination during pregnancy

Freitas, Daniel L. D., Peres, Ana F. S., Silva, Lidiane G., Mariz, João V. M., Santos, Marcos G., Morais, Rayanne S. P., Medeiros-De-morais, Camilo De lelis orcid iconORCID: 0000-0003-2573-787X, Martin, Francis L., Pascoal, Daniel A. V. et al (2021) Near-infrared spectroscopy of blood plasma with chemometrics towards HIV discrimination during pregnancy. Scientific Reports, 11 (1). p. 22609.

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Abstract: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs have been one of the hallmarks of success in the fight against HIV/AIDS. In Brazil, access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy has increased, leading to a reduction in new infections among children. Currently, lifelong ART is available to all pregnant, however yet challenges remain in eliminating mother-to-child transmission. In this paper, we focus on the role of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to analyse blood plasma samples of pregnant women with HIV infection to differentiate pregnant women without HIV infection. Seventy-seven samples (39 HIV-infected patient and 38 healthy control samples) were analysed. Multivariate classification of resultant NIR spectra facilitated diagnostic segregation of both sample categories in a fast and non-destructive fashion, generating good accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. This method is simple and low-cost, and can be easily adapted to point-of-care screening, which can be essential to monitor pregnancy risks in remote locations or in the developing world. Therefore, it opens a new perspective to investigate vertical transmission (VT). The approach described here, can be useful for the identification and exploration of VT under various pathophysiological conditions of maternal HIV. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the potential of NIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis as a screening tool for fast and low-cost HIV detection.

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