# LeMMINGs IV: The X-ray properties of a statistically-complete sample of the nuclei in active and inactive galaxies from the Palomar sample

Williams, D R A, Pahari, M, Baldi, R D, McHardy, I M, Mathur, S, Beswick, R J, Beri, A, Boorman, P, Aalto, S et al (2022) LeMMINGs IV: The X-ray properties of a statistically-complete sample of the nuclei in active and inactive galaxies from the Palomar sample. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 510 (4). pp. 4909-4928. ISSN 0035-8711

Abstract All 280 of the statistically-complete Palomar sample of nearby (&amp;lt;120 Mpc) galaxies δ &amp;gt; 20○ have been observed at 1.5 GHz as part of the LeMMINGs e-MERLIN legacy survey. Here, we present Chandra X-ray observations of the nuclei of 213 of these galaxies, including a statistically-complete sub-set of 113 galaxies in the declination range 40○ &amp;lt;δ &amp;lt; 65○. We observed galaxies of all optical spectral types, including ‘active’ galaxies (e.g. LINERs and Seyferts) and ‘inactive’ galaxies like ${\rm H\, \small {II}}$ galaxies and absorption line galaxies (ALG). The X-ray flux limit of our survey is 1.65 × 10−14 erg s−1 cm−2 (0.3−10 keV). We detect X-ray emission coincident within 2-arcsec of the nucleus in 150/213 galaxies, including 13/14 Seyferts, 68/77 LINERs, 13/22 ALGs and 56/100 ${\rm H\, \small {II}}$ galaxies, but cannot completely rule out contamination from non-AGN processes in sources with nuclear luminosities $\lesssim 10^{39}$ erg s−1. We construct an X-ray Luminosity function (XLF) and find that the local galaxy XLF, when including all AGN types, can be represented as a single power-law of slope −0.54 ± 0.06. The Eddington ratio of the Seyferts is usually 2−4 decades higher than that of the LINERs, ALGs and ${\rm H\, \small {II}}$ galaxies, which are mostly detected with Eddington ratios $\lesssim 10^{-3}$. Using [${\rm O\, \small {III}}$] line measurements and BH masses from the literature, we show that LINERs, ${\rm H\, \small {II}}$ galaxies and ALGs follow similar correlations to low luminosities, suggesting that some ‘inactive’ galaxies may harbour AGN.