Evaluation of 3D Vulnerable Objects’ Detection Using a Multi-Sensors System for Autonomous Vehicles

Khatab, Esraa orcid iconORCID: 0000-0002-8006-7699, Onsy, Ahmed orcid iconORCID: 0000-0003-0803-5374 and Abouelfarag, Ahmed (2022) Evaluation of 3D Vulnerable Objects’ Detection Using a Multi-Sensors System for Autonomous Vehicles. Sensors, 22 (4). e1663.

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/s22041663


One of the primary tasks undertaken by autonomous vehicles (AVs) is object detection, which comes ahead of object tracking, trajectory estimation, and collision avoidance. Vulnerable road objects (e.g., pedestrians, cyclists, etc.) pose a greater challenge to the reliability of object detection operations due to their continuously changing behavior. The majority of commercially available AVs, and research into them, depends on employing expensive sensors. However, this hinders the development of further research on the operations of AVs. In this paper, therefore, we focus on the use of a lower-cost single-beam LiDAR in addition to a monocular camera to achieve multiple 3D vulnerable object detection in real driving scenarios, all the while maintaining real-time performance. This research also addresses the problems faced during object detection, such as the complex interaction between objects where occlusion and truncation occur, and the dynamic changes in the perspective and scale of bounding boxes. The video-processing module works upon a deep-learning detector (YOLOv3), while the LiDAR measurements are pre-processed and grouped into clusters. The output of the proposed system is objects classification and localization by having bounding boxes accompanied by a third depth dimension acquired by the LiDAR. Real-time tests show that the system can efficiently detect the 3D location of vulnerable objects in real-time scenarios.

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