Incidence of Distal Stent Graft Induced New Entry vs. Aortic Remodeling Associated With Frozen Elephant Trunk

Jubouri, Matti, Kayali, Fatima Saad Abdul-Karim, Saha, Priyanshu, Ansari, Daniyal M., Rezaei, Yousef, Tan, Sven Z. C. P., Mousavizadeh, Mostafa, Hosseini, Saeid, Mohammed, Idhrees et al (2022) Incidence of Distal Stent Graft Induced New Entry vs. Aortic Remodeling Associated With Frozen Elephant Trunk. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, 9 . p. 875078.

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Background: The introduction of the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique for total arch replacement (TAR) has revolutionized the field of aortivascular surgery by allowing hybrid repair of complex aortic pathologies in a single step through combining an open surgical approach with an endovascular one. FET has been associated with favorable aortic remodeling, however, its is also associated with development of distal stent graft induced new entry (dSINE) tears postoperatively. The rate of aortic remodeling and the incidence of dSINE have been linked together, in addition, there seems to be a relationship between these two variables and FET insetion length as well as graft size. Aims: The scope of this review is to highlight the rate of aortic remodeling as well the incidence of dSINE associated with different FET devices available commercially. This review also aimed to investigate the relationship between aortic remodeling, dSINE, FET insertion length and FET graft size. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature search using multiple electronic databases including PubMed, Ovid, Scopus and Embase in order to collate all research evidence on the above mentioned variables. Results: Thoraflex™ Hybrid Plexus seems to yield optimum aortic remodeling by promoting maximum false thrombosis as well true lumen expansion. Thoraflex Hybrid™ is also associated with the lowest incidence of dSINE post-FET relative to the other FET devices on the market. Aortic remodeling and dSINE do influence each other and are both linked with FET graft length and size. Conclusion: The FET technique for TAR shows excellent aortic remodeling but is associated with a considerable risk of dSINE development. However, Thoraflex™ Hybrid has demonstrated itself to be the superior FET device on the aortic arch prostheses market. Since aortic remodeling, dSINE, FET insertion length and stent graft size are all interconnect, the choice of FET device length and size must be made with great care for optimum results.

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