Adropin’s Role in Energy Homeostasis and Metabolic Disorders

Ali, Ifrah Ismail, D’Souza, Crystal, Singh, Jaipaul orcid iconORCID: 0000-0002-3200-3949 and Adeghate, Ernest (2022) Adropin’s Role in Energy Homeostasis and Metabolic Disorders. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23 (15). ISSN 1661-6596

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Adropin is a novel 76-amino acid-peptide that is expressed in different tissues and cells including the liver, pancreas, heart and vascular tissues, kidney, milk, serum, plasma and many parts of the brain. Adropin, encoded by the Enho gene, plays a crucial role in energy homeostasis. The literature review indicates that adropin alleviates the degree of insulin resistance by reducing endogenous hepatic glucose production. Adropin improves glucose metabolism by enhancing glucose utilization in mice, including the sensitization of insulin signaling pathways such as Akt phosphorylation and the activation of the glucose transporter 4 receptor. Several studies have also demonstrated that adropin improves cardiac function, cardiac efficiency and coronary blood flow in mice. Adropin can also reduce the levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In contrast, it increases the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, often referred to as the beneficial cholesterol. Adropin inhibits inflammation by reducing the tissue level of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6. The protective effect of adropin on the vascular endothelium is through an increase in the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. This article provides an overview of the existing literature about the role of adropin in different pathological conditions.

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