Review of Solar Energetic Particle Models

Whitman, Kathryn, Egeland, Ricky, Richardson, Ian G, Allison, Clayton, Quinn, Philip, Barzilla, Janet, Kitiashvili, Irina, Sadykov, Viacheslav, Bain, Hazel M et al (2023) Review of Solar Energetic Particle Models. Advances in Space Research, 72 (12). pp. 5161-5242. ISSN 0273-1177

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Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) events are interesting from a scientific perspective as they are the product of a broad set of physical processes from the corona out through the extent of the heliosphere, and provide insight into processes of particle acceleration and transport that are widely applicable in astrophysics. From the operations perspective, SEP events pose a radiation hazard for aviation, electronics in space, and human space exploration, in particular for missions outside of the Earth’s protective magnetosphere including to the Moon and Mars. Thus, it is critical to imific understanding of SEP events and use this understanding to develop and improve SEP forecasting capabilities to support operations. Many SEP models exist or are in development using a wide variety of approaches and with differing goals. These include computationally intensive physics-based models, fast and light empirical models, machine learning-based models, and mixed-model approaches. The aim of this paper is to summarize all of the SEP models currently developed in the scientific community, including a description of model approach, inputs and outputs, free parameters, and any published validations or comparisons with data.

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