The pattern speeds of vertical breathing waves

Khachaturyants, Tigran, Debattista, Victor P orcid iconORCID: 0000-0001-7902-0116, Ghosh, Soumavo, e Silva, Leandro Beraldo and Daniel, Kathryne J (2022) The pattern speeds of vertical breathing waves. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society . ISSN 0035-8711

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We measure and compare the pattern speeds of vertical breathing, vertical bending, and spiral density waves in two isolated N-body+SPH simulations, using windowed Fourier transforms over 1Gyr time intervals. We show that the pattern speeds of the breathing waves match those of the spirals but are different from those of the bending waves. We also observe matching pattern speeds between the bar and breathing waves. Our results not only strengthen the case that, throughout the disc, breathing motions are driven by spirals but indeed that the breathing motions are part and parcel of the spirals.

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