Management and outcomes of sellar, suprasellar, and parasellar masses in low-and middle- income countries: a scoping review

Egiz, Abdullah Mohammed, Dalle, D. Ulrich, Dada, O. Ezekiel, Ikwuegbuenyi, C.A., Yang Ooi, S. Zhi, Gillespie, C.S., Tunde, O.A., OuYong, B.M., Korch, M. et al (2022) Management and outcomes of sellar, suprasellar, and parasellar masses in low-and middle- income countries: a scoping review. Brain and Spine, 2 . p. 101367. ISSN 27725294

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Background: There are several studies which describe the current management strategies and outcomes of SMs in High-Income Countries (HICs). However, there is little known the situation regarding SMs in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) apart from studies describing the experience from tertiary centres. With this study, we identified the epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and outcomes of SMs, SSMs, and PSMs in LMICs while reviewing and synthesising the relevant literature.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis extension for Scoping Review (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines were used to report the findings. MEDLINE, Embase, Global Index Medicus, and African Journals OnLine were the databases of choice. Cases were included if the pathology was related to the sellar, parasellar or suprasellar regions. The dataset was analysed using descriptive statistics via SPSS.

Results: We have includedn=16589 patients from 49 LMICs. LMICs with the most studies were in China (n=49, 4.9%). Headache was the most reported symptomn=3995 with a mean of 29.82 cases per study (Range 0–130). Most reported tumour location was the sellar regionn=12933 (85%). Somatotroph adenomas was the most diagnosed pituitary adenoma (n=3297). The most frequently diagnosed non-pituitary adenomatous mass was arachnoid cysts (n=282). Endoscopic approaches were far more utilised compared to microsurgical approaches, n=3418 and n=1730, respectively. Hormonal therapies with Cabergoline were administered in 1700 patients with prolactinoma. Radiosurgery was performed in n=357 patients. The average follow-up duration was 33.26 months.

Conclusion: Neuro-oncology and pituitary research in LMICs remains under-reported. Our understanding of the current landscape of the management and outcomes of sellar, suprasellar and parasellar masses show that there is similarity to the management approaches utilised compared to HICs. The surgical outcomes, although largely underreported, were worse in LMICs compared to HICs, highlighting the need for more research and education.

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