Recent nanoengineered diagnostic and therapeutic advancements in management of Sepsis

Soni, Mukesh, Handa, Mayank, Singh, Kamalinder orcid iconORCID: 0000-0001-7325-0711 and Shukla, Rahul (2022) Recent nanoengineered diagnostic and therapeutic advancements in management of Sepsis. Journal of Controlled Release . ISSN 0168-3659

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COVID-19 acquired symptoms have affected the worldwide population and increased the load of Intensive care unit (ICU) patient admissions. A large number of patients admitted to ICU end with a deadly fate of mortality. A high mortality rate of patients was reported with hospital-acquired septic shock that leads to multiple organ failures and ultimately ends with death. The patients who overcome this septic shock suffer from morbidity that also affects their caretakers. To overcome these situations, scientists are exploring progressive theragnostic techniques with advanced techniques based on biosensors, biomarkers, biozymes, vesicles, and others. These advanced techniques pave the novel way for early detection of sepsis-associated symptoms and timely treatment with appropriate antibiotics and immunomodulators and prevent the undue effect on other parts of the body. There are other techniques like externally modulated electric-based devices working on the principle of piezoelectric mechanism that not only sense the endotoxin levels but also target them with a loaded antibiotic to neutralize the onset of inflammatory response. Recently researchers have developed a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) neutralizing cartridge that not only senses the LPS but also appropriately neutralizes with dual mechanistic insights of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory effects. This review will highlight recent developments in the new nanotechnology-based approaches for the diagnosis and therapeutics of sepsis that is responsible for the high number of deaths of patients suffering from this critical disease.

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