The Interplay between Gut Microbiota and Parkinson's Disease: Implications on Diagnosis and Treatment

Varesi, Angelica, Campagnoli, Lucrezia Irene Maria, Fahmideh, Foroogh, Pierella, Elisa, Romeo, Marcello, Ricevuti, Giovanni, Nicoletta, Marchesi, Chirumbolo, Salvatore and Pascale, Alessia (2022) The Interplay between Gut Microbiota and Parkinson's Disease: Implications on Diagnosis and Treatment. International journal of molecular sciences, 23 (20). ISSN 1661-6596

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The bidirectional interaction between the gut microbiota (GM) and the Central Nervous System, the so-called gut microbiota brain axis (GMBA), deeply affects brain function and has an important impact on the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease (PD), gastrointestinal symptoms often precede the onset of motor and non-motor manifestations, and alterations in the GM composition accompany disease pathogenesis. Several studies have been conducted to unravel the role of dysbiosis and intestinal permeability in PD onset and progression, but the therapeutic and diagnostic applications of GM modifying approaches remain to be fully elucidated. After a brief introduction on the involvement of GMBA in the disease, we present evidence for GM alterations and leaky gut in PD patients. According to these data, we then review the potential of GM-based signatures to serve as disease biomarkers and we highlight the emerging role of probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics, dietary interventions, and fecal microbiota transplantation as supportive therapeutic approaches in PD. Finally, we analyze the mutual influence between commonly prescribed PD medications and gut-microbiota, and we offer insights on the involvement also of nasal and oral microbiota in PD pathology, thus providing a comprehensive and up-to-date overview on the role of microbial features in disease diagnosis and treatment.

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