The use of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease using oral buccal cells

Paraskevaidi, Maria, Karim, Salman, Santos, Marfran, Lima, Kassio and Crean, Stjohn orcid iconORCID: 0000-0001-9336-8549 (2023) The use of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease using oral buccal cells. Applied Spectroscopy Reviews . ISSN 0570-4928

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As general aging increases, the prevalence of dementia, particularly Alzheimer’s disease, is anticipated to triple by 2050, posing significant socio-economic challenges. Existing biomarkers for Alzheimer’s have limitations, especially in early stages, and current diagnostic methods involve invasive procedures or expensive imaging techniques. Developing a rapid, cost-effective, and noninvasive test is crucial for the early identification of individuals requiring further assessment. Oral cavity-derived samples like saliva and buccal mucosal cells are promising biomarker sources due to their correlation with peripheral changes in Alzheimer’s. In this study, we explored the potential of attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for Alzheimer’s using buccal cells. The analysis, coupled with machine learning algorithms, achieved a 76% sensitivity and 100% specificity (AUC: 88%) in distinguishing Alzheimer’s patients from age-matched healthy controls. Our findings demonstrate that spectroscopic analysis of buccal cells has the potential to detect Alzheimer’s disease with high diagnostic precision, offering a noninvasive and cost-effective alternative to current invasive procedures. Early diagnosis through such a test may impact disease progression by enabling timely intervention.

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