High energy solar particle events and their relationship to associated flare, CME and GLE parameters

Waterfall, Charlotte, Dalla, Silvia orcid iconORCID: 0000-0002-7837-5780, Raukunen, Osko, Heynderickx, Daniel, Jiggens, Piers and Vainio, Rami (2023) High energy solar particle events and their relationship to associated flare, CME and GLE parameters. Space Weather .

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1029/2022SW003334


Large solar eruptive events, including solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), can lead to solar energetic particle (SEP) events. During these events, protons are accelerated up to several GeV and pose numerous space weather risks. These risks include, but are not limited to, radiation hazards to astronauts and disruption to satellites and electronics. The highest energy SEPs are capable of reaching Earth on timescales of minutes and can be detected in ground level enhancements (GLEs). Understanding and analyzing these events is critical to future forecasting models. However, the availability of high energy SEP data sets is limited, especially that which covers multiple solar cycles. The majority of analysis of SEP events considers data at energies <100 MeV. In this work, we use a newly calibrated data set using data from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-high energy proton and alpha detector between 1984 and 2017. Analysis of the SEP events in this time period over three high energy channels is performed, and SEP properties are compared to flare and CME parameters. In addition, neutron monitor (NM) observations are examined for the relevant GLE events. We find that correlations between SEP peak intensity and the CME speed are much weaker than for lower SEP energies. Correlations with flare intensity are broadly similar or weaker. Strong correlations are seen between >300 MeV data and GLE properties from NM data. The results of our work can be utilized in future forecasting models for both high energy SEP and GLE events.

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