Chemodynamical Properties and Ages of Metal-Poor Stars in S-PLUS

Almeida-Fernandes, F., Placco, V. M., Rocha-Pinto, H. J., Borges Fernandes, M., Limberg, G., Beraldo e Silva, Leandro, Amarante, Joao A. S., Perottoni, H. D., Overzier, R. et al (2023) Chemodynamical Properties and Ages of Metal-Poor Stars in S-PLUS. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society . ISSN 0035-8711

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Metal-poor stars are key to our understanding of the early stages of chemical evolution in the Universe. New multi-filter surveys, such as the Southern Photometric Local Universe Survey (S-PLUS), are greatly advancing our ability to select low-metallicity stars. In this work, we analyse the chemodynamical properties and ages of 522 metal-poor candidates selected from the S-PLUS data release 3. About 92% of these stars were confirmed to be metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≤−1) based on previous medium-resolution spectroscopy. We calculated the dynamical properties of a subsample containing 241 stars, using the astrometry from Gaia Data Release 3. Stellar ages are estimated by a Bayesian isochronal method formalized in this work. We analyse the metallicity distribution of these metal-poor candidates separated into different subgroups of total velocity, dynamical properties, and ages. Our results are used to propose further restrictions to optimize the selection of metal-poor candidates in S-PLUS. The proposed astrometric selection (parallax>0.85 mas) is the one that returns the highest fraction of extremely metal-poor stars (16.3% have [Fe/H] ≤−3); the combined selection provides the highest fraction of very metal-poor stars (91.0% have [Fe/H] ≤−2), whereas the dynamical selection (eccentricity > 0.35 and diskness < 0.75) is better for targetting metal-poor (99.5% have [Fe/H] ≤−1). Using only S-PLUS photometric selections, it is possible to achieve selection fractions of 15.6%, 88.5% and 98.3% for metallicities below −3, −2 and −1, respectively. We also show that it is possible to use S-PLUS to target metal-poor stars in halo substructures such as Gaia-Sausage/Enceladus, Sequoia, Thamnos and the Helmi stream.

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