Biomarkers in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis: Potential Pitfalls and Future Prospects

Morris, Adam D., Rowbottom, Anthony, Martin, Francis L orcid iconORCID: 0000-0001-8562-4944, Woywodt, Alexander and Dhaygude, Ajay P. (2021) Biomarkers in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis: Potential Pitfalls and Future Prospects. Kidney360, 2 (3). pp. 586-597.

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Over the past 3 decades, significant advancements in the understanding of the pathophysiology of ANCA-associated vasculitis has led to the development of a multitude of potential candidate biomarkers. Accompanied by the advent of increasingly effective therapeutic strategies, the need for a dependable biomarker to help determine the extent of disease activity and risk of relapse is ever present. Implementation of such a biomarker would enable tailored therapy, optimizing disease control while helping to mitigate unnecessary exposure to therapy and potential treatment-related damage. Although far from perfect, ANCA serology and B-cell population are the two main staple biomarker tools widely used in practice to help supplement clinical assessment. Over recent years, the application and progress of more novel biomarker tools have arisen in both organ-limited and multisystem disease, including genomics, urinary proteins, degradation products of the alternative complement system, cytokines, metabolomics, and biospectroscopy. Validation studies and clinical translation of these tools are required, with serial assessment of disease activity and determination of therapy according to biomarker status correlated with patient outcomes.

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