Vincristine-based nanoformulations: a preclinical and clinical studies overview

Shukla, Rahul, Singh, Ajit and Singh, Kamalinder orcid iconORCID: 0000-0001-7325-0711 (2023) Vincristine-based nanoformulations: a preclinical and clinical studies overview. Drug Delivery and Translational Research . ISSN 2190-393X

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Vincristine (VCR) is a chemotherapeutic agent obtained from natural alkaloid plant source Catharanthus roseus. VCR has been significantly useful in treatments of lung cancer, lymphocyte-based leukaemia, glioblastomas and acute myeloid leukaemia. VCR attaches to tubulin fibrils and prevents filament polymerization that permanently led to mitosis inhibition in cancer cells. Clinically, VCR is administered to patients in multidrug combination to reduce adverse drug effects and potential blockage of bone marrow inhibition due to prescribed monotherapy. However, VCR possesses low cancer tissue affinity and at higher dose often led to irreversible neurotoxicity. Conventional VCR injectables are successfully used in clinics, but lack of controlled release, non-specific biodistribution and consequent off-target side effects are still major challenges. Currently, nanotechnological drug delivery systems are being explored for improvement of VCR pharmacokinetic profile and tumour-specific targeting. Various nanomedicine formulations such as liposomes, lipid nanoparticles, and polymeric nanocarriers of VCR have been studied under various in vitro and in vivo models. In this review, we have summarised the chemotherapeutic role of VCR, evaluated the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics and challenges associated with VCR delivery. Moreover, application of VCR in nanomedicine and effect on anticancer efficacy in preclinical and clinical setting are also being discussed.

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