The role of DNA in forensic science: A comprehensive review

Alketbi, Salem Khalifa orcid iconORCID: 0000-0002-7773-3953 (2023) The role of DNA in forensic science: A comprehensive review. International Journal of Science and Research Archive, 09 (02). pp. 814-829. ISSN 2582-8185

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Forensic genetics, leveraging molecular tools and scientific applications, has witnessed significant advancements in DNA analysis over the last three decades. These progressions have enhanced the discrimination power, speed, and sensitivity of DNA profiling methods, enabling the analysis of challenging samples. This article explores the significance of forensic genetics in criminal investigations, traces the historical evolution of DNA analysis techniques, and presents recent developments in the field. The article aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the crucial role of forensic genetics in criminal investigations and sheds light on the latest trends and breakthroughs in this area. The evolution of DNA typing from ABO blood typing to the current standard of short tandem repeat (STR) analysis is discussed, along with alternative DNA analysis methods, such as Y-chromosome analysis and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) represents a groundbreaking advancement, enabling whole genome sequencing and addressing complex cases. The article also covers recent innovations, including DNA methylation analysis, body fluid identification, forensic DNA phenotyping, and genetic genealogy, highlighting their potential benefits in forensic investigations. Despite these advancements, standard STR profiling remains the gold standard due to its established protocols and databases. Ethical considerations regarding data privacy and cost implications are crucial as these technologies continue to progress in their pursuit of justice.

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