Psycho-social factors associated with type two diabetes remission through lifestyle intervention: A scoping review

Hart, Kathryn Jane, Kubilius, Andrew and Clark, Martin orcid iconORCID: 0000-0002-3315-5629 (2023) Psycho-social factors associated with type two diabetes remission through lifestyle intervention: A scoping review. PLOS ONE, 18 (11).

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Objectives: There is growing evidence that type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be put into remission through lifestyle intervention. Current focus on remission in terms of physiological considerations and biomedical scales, means there is limited understanding of the role psycho-social factors play in moderating the efficacy of lifestyle interventions for T2D remission. In the current review we aimed to synthesise the emerging literature on psycho-social factors associated with T2D remission, specifically from lifestyle interventions. Methods: Five databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL ultimate, PsychINFO and PsycArticles) were searched to identify studies from 2009 onwards that reported remission outcomes from lifestyle interventions in participants ≥ 18years old, with a clinical diagnosis of T2D. Studies included were of an interventional or observational design and restricted to English language. Screening and data extraction was performed independently by two reviewers using prespecified criteria. Results: In total 6106 studies were screened, 36 studies meeting the inclusion criteria were included. Studies were globally diverse, with 30 (83%) being published ≥ 2017. Psycho-social scales were under-utilised with 22 (67%) of studies failing to include any psycho-social measures. Single arm, prospective studies were most frequently utilised, however study quality was perceived to be heterogeneous. Further disparity in the quality, content and delineation of the psycho-social interventions was also identified. Education and self-monitoring interventions were the most frequently incorporated. Self-monitoring was also identified as an important facilitator to remission, in addition to social support. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that psycho-social factors in T2D remission are under-explored. We have identified a number of methodological issues (comparability, conflicting remission criteria and poorly defined psycho-social interventions) suggesting knowledge gaps which could inform the methodology of future research design. There is significant opportunity for future research to incorporate the social model of disease, conceptualise remission more holistically, and build a more comprehensive evidence base to guide clinical practice.

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