Pain: Physiology, Recognition, and Management in Zoo Animals

Bacon, Heather orcid iconORCID: 0000-0002-0011-8047 (2023) Pain: Physiology, Recognition, and Management in Zoo Animals. In: Optimal Wellbeing of Ageing Wild Animals in Human Care. Springer, pp. 123-142. ISBN 978-3-031-30659-4

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Pain is a significant welfare concern for zoo animals around the world. As zoos commonly house animals living beyond their lifespans in the wild, pain associated with degenerative diseases of old age, as well as that associated with acute illness or injury, is of increasing concern. Barriers to effective management of pain across the many and varied taxa that zoos house include our current understanding of pain physiology and the recognition of pain states in different species. Additionally, the therapeutic approach to pain management may be a challenge depending on species. This chapter outlines the physiology of pain, types of pain, pain recognition, and the principles of preventing and managing pain experiences in animals.

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