Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo After Joint Replacement Surgeries: Case Series

Bashir, Khalid, Yousuf, Abdulla, Shahzad, Talha, Khan, Keebat and Khuda Bakhsh, Zeenat (2024) Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo After Joint Replacement Surgeries: Case Series. Cureus, 16 (1).

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Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is characterized by brief episodes of vertigo triggered by changes in head position caused by the displacement of otoliths from the utricle to the semicircular canals, particularly the posterior canal. This study explored the potential link between BPPV, the patient's preexisting conditions, and surgery-related factors including surgical positioning, duration of the procedure, exposure to vibratory forces, and anesthesia effects. This report presents two cases of BPPV following major joint replacement surgery. The first case involved a 65-year-old male with a history of diet-controlled diabetes who had undergone right-sided total hip replacement. The second case was that of a 60-year-old female with a history of osteoporosis managed with bisphosphonate therapy and left-sided knee replacement. Both patients developed vertigo symptoms one day postoperatively and were diagnosed with BPPV. In both cases, the Dix-Hallpike test confirmed the right-sided posterior canal BPPV diagnosis, and the patients were successfully treated using the Epley maneuver. Notably, there was no recurrence of vertigo at the four-week follow-up. These cases highlight the importance of considering BPPV in patients presenting with vertigo symptoms after joint replacement surgery, especially in the presence of comorbidities like diabetes and osteoporosis which possibly increase susceptibility to BPPV. This article presents two cases of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) following non-otologic surgery. It explores the pathophysiological mechanism underlying BPPV after such surgeries and also discusses the diagnosis and treatment approaches. This underscores the need for prompt diagnosis and treatment of BPPV to improve postoperative outcomes.

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