Lactate Protects Microglia and Neurons from Oxygen–Glucose Deprivation/Reoxygenation

Tassinari, Isadora D’Ávila, Rodrigues, Fernanda da Silva, Bertram, Craig, Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Arêas, Guedes, Renata Padilha, Paz, Ana Helena, Bambini-Junior, Victorio and de Fraga, Luciano Stürmer (2024) Lactate Protects Microglia and Neurons from Oxygen–Glucose Deprivation/Reoxygenation. Neurochemical Research . ISSN 0364-3190

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Lactate has received attention as a potential therapeutic intervention for brain diseases, particularly those including energy deficit, exacerbated inflammation, and disrupted redox status, such as cerebral ischemia. However, lactate roles in metabolic or signaling pathways in neural cells remain elusive in the hypoxic and ischemic contexts. Here, we tested the effects of lactate on the survival of a microglial (BV-2) and a neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cell lines during oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) or OGD followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R). Lactate signaling was studied by using 3,5-DHBA, an exogenous agonist of lactate receptor GPR81. Inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or monocarboxylate transporters (MCT), using oxamate or 4-CIN, respectively, was performed to evaluate the impact of lactate metabolization and transport on cell viability. The OGD lasted 6 h and the reoxygenation lasted 24 h following OGD (OGD/R). Cell viability, extracellular lactate concentrations, microglial intracellular pH and TNF-ɑ release, and neurite elongation were evaluated. Lactate or 3,5-DHBA treatment during OGD increased microglial survival during reoxygenation. Inhibition of lactate metabolism and transport impaired microglial and neuronal viability. OGD led to intracellular acidification in BV-2 cells, and reoxygenation increased the release of TNF-ɑ, which was reverted by lactate and 3,5-DHBA treatment. Our results suggest that lactate plays a dual role in OGD, acting as a metabolic and a signaling molecule in BV-2 and SH-SY5Y cells. Lactate metabolism and transport are vital for cell survival during OGD. Moreover, lactate treatment and GPR81 activation during OGD promote long-term adaptations that potentially protect cells against secondary cell death during reoxygenation.

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