Systematic Analysis of Lower Second Molar Periodontal Health after Autogenous Dentine Graft from Wisdom Tooth Extraction

Beaven, Andrew Phillip Richard, Dyer, Peter, Krysmann, Marta orcid iconORCID: 0000-0002-8036-4925, Cook, Neil orcid iconORCID: 0000-0001-9738-9582, Bhatia, Manoj, Ahmed, Waqar orcid iconORCID: 0000-0003-4152-5172 and Barrak, Fadi N orcid iconORCID: 0000-0002-3906-9174 (2024) Systematic Analysis of Lower Second Molar Periodontal Health after Autogenous Dentine Graft from Wisdom Tooth Extraction. Journal of Clinical & Medical Surgery, 4 . ISSN 2833-5465

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Introduction: Postoperative complications stemming from lower wisdom tooth extractions are often overshadowed by the immediate need to address pain and existing disease. Nevertheless, an emerging body of evidence suggests the importance of preventing potential periodontal damage to the adjacent second molar resulting from the extraction surgery. To avert periodontal complications involves promoting bone formation within the extracted socket defect. Allogenic and artificial bone, as well as the patient’s bone, have conventionally filled the osseous void post-surgery. These approaches are costly and may extend the patient’s recovery. An Autogenous Dentine Graft (ADG), derived from the recently extracted wisdom tooth, presents, as a particulate with osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties, is ideal for preserving bone integrity. This review assesses the available evidence supporting the use of ADG in safeguarding against periodontal morbidity resulting from the surgical extraction of a lower third molar. Materials and methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted, focusing on the periodontal health of the second molar and the bone height of the osseous defect postwisdom tooth extraction. Out of 76 identified articles, four studies were selected for the review. Results: Three months post-surgery, the mean periodontal probing depth distal to the second molar was 4.7mm in control sites and 2.83mm in sites treated with ADG. Over 12 months, the mean bone height exhibited a negative loss of 1.25mm in control sites and a positive gain of 0.9mm in sites treated with ADG. Conclusion: Presently, there is insufficient evidence to unequivocally support the use of an autogenous dentine graft following the surgical extraction of a wisdom tooth. However, early results are promising, and given the biocompatibility of a material derived from the patient, ADG is considered a safe option for patients at high risk of an osseous defect. Further research is needed to substantiate these findings and guide clinical decision-making.

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