Cardiovascular complications during delivery hospitalizations in inflammatory bowel disease patients

Niu, Chengu, Zhang, Jing, Zhu, Kaiwen, Agbakoba, George, Dunnigan, Karin and Okolo, Patrick I. (2024) Cardiovascular complications during delivery hospitalizations in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Clinical Research in Cardiology . ISSN 1861-0684

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The relationship between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and cardiovascular outcomes among pregnant women has yet to be thoroughly investigated. Our aim is to assess the odds of cardiovascular disease and cardiac arrhythmias during hospital admissions for delivery and identify contributing factors associated with cardiovascular complications in pregnant women with IBD.

We performed a retrospective analysis of data from the National Inpatient Sample, obtained from delivery admissions of pregnant women with and without IBD, identified via International Classification of Diseases codes, from 2009 to 2019. Using a regression model, we compared the odds of cardiovascular complications between these two groups, adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors as confounding variables.

Our study included 71,361 pregnancies with IBD and 41,117,443 pregnancies without this condition. The incidence of IBD in pregnancy rose near three-fold increase over the decade. In comparison to pregnancies without IBD, those involving pregnant patients with IBD exhibited an increased likelihood of encountering cardiovascular complications, with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.29–1.46). This heightened risk encompasses a range of conditions, including peripartum cardiomyopathy (AOR, 9.45; 95% CI, 3.86–23.15), cardiac arrhythmias (AOR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.59–2.60), and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (AOR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.37–1.66), notably preeclampsia, eclampsia, and the syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP syndrome). Pregnancies with IBD were also associated with three-fold higher odds of venous thromboembolism (AOR, 3.91; 95% CI, 1.45–10.48).

Pregnant patients with IBD had an increased odds of cardiovascular complications during delivery admissions, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Further research is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and develop targeted prevention strategies for this high-risk population.

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