Why do women not use antenatal services in low and middle income countries? A metasynthesis of qualitative studies

Finlayson, Kenneth William orcid iconORCID: 0000-0002-1287-7630 and Downe, Soo orcid iconORCID: 0000-0003-2848-2550 (2013) Why do women not use antenatal services in low and middle income countries? A metasynthesis of qualitative studies. PLoS Medicine, 10 (1). pp. 1-10. ISSN 1549-1277

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001373


Almost 50% of women in low & middle income countries (LMIC’s) don’t receive adequate antenatal care. Women’s views can offer important insights into this problem. Qualitative studies exploring inadequate use of antenatal services have been undertaken in a range of countries, but the findings are not easily transferable. We aimed to inform the development of future antenatal care programmes through a synthesis of findings in all relevant qualitative studies.

Methods and Findings:
Using a pre-determined search strategy, we identified robust qualitative studies reporting on the views and experiences of women in LMIC’s who received inadequate antenatal care. We used meta-ethnographic techniques to generate themes and a line of argument synthesis. We derived policy relevant hypotheses from the findings.
We included 21 papers representing the views of more than 1230 women from 15 countries. Three key themes were identified: ‘Pregnancy as socially risky and physiologically healthy’; ‘Resource use and survival in conditions of extreme poverty’and ‘Not getting it right first time’. The line of argument synthesis describes a dissonance between programme design and cultural contexts that may restrict access and discourage return visits. We hypothesize that centralized, risk-focused antenatal care programmes may be at odds with the resources, beliefs and experiences of pregnant women who underuse antenatal services.

Our findings suggest that there may be a mis-alignment between current antenatal provision and the social and cultural context of some women in LMIC’s. Antenatal care provision that is theoretically and contextually at odds with local contextual beliefs and experiences are likely to be underused, especially when attendance generates increased personal risks of lost family resource or physical danger during travel; when the promised care is not delivered due to resource constraints; and when women experience covert or overt abuse in care settings.

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