Food safety, food fraud and food defense: a fast evolving literature

Manning, Louise and Soon, Jan Mei orcid iconORCID: 0000-0003-0488-1434 (2016) Food safety, food fraud and food defense: a fast evolving literature. Journal of Food Science, 81 (4). ISSN 0022-1147

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Intentional food crime is plural in nature in terms of the types of crime and the differing levels of financial gain. Successful models of food crime are dependent on how well the crime has been executed and at what point, or even if, detection actually occurs. The aim of this paper is to undertake a literature review and critique the often contradictory definitions that can be found in the literature in order to compare and contrast existing food crime risk assessment tools and their application. Food safety, food defense, and food fraud risk assessments consider different criteria in order to determine the degree of situational risk for each criteria and the measures that need to be implemented to mitigate that risk. Further research is required to support the development of global countermeasures, that are of value in reducing overall risk even when the potential hazards may be largely unknown, and specific countermeasures that can act against unique risks.

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