The application of proteomics in muscle exercise physiology.

Hesketh, Stuart J orcid iconORCID: 0000-0001-7855-2380, Stansfield, Ben, Stead, Connor and Burniston, Jatin (2021) The application of proteomics in muscle exercise physiology. Expert Review of Proteomics, 17 (11-12). pp. 813-825.

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<h4>Introduction</h4>Exercise offers protection from non-communicable diseases and extends healthspan by offsetting natural physiological declines that occur in older age. Striated muscle is the largest bodily organ; it underpins the capacity for physical work, and the responses of muscle to exercise convey the health benefits of a physically active lifestyle. Proteomic surveys of muscle provide a means to study the protective effects of exercise and this review summaries some key findings from literature listed in PubMed during the last 10 years that have led to new insight in muscle exercise physiology.<h4>Areas covered</h4>'Bottom-up' analyses involving liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of peptide digests have become the mainstay of proteomic studies and have been applied to muscle mitochondrial fractions. Enrichment techniques for post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitination, have evolved and the analysis of site-specific modifications has become a major area of interest in exercise proteomics. Finally, we consider emergent techniques for dynamic analysis of muscle proteomes that offer new insight to protein turnover and the contributions of synthesis and degradation to changes in protein abundance in response to exercise training.<h4>Expert opinion</h4>Burgeoning methods for dynamic proteome profiling offer new opportunities to study the mechanisms of muscle adaptation.

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