Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of some NSAIDs in horses: A pharmacological, biochemical and forensic study

Subhahar, Michael (2013) Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of some NSAIDs in horses: A pharmacological, biochemical and forensic study. Doctoral thesis, University of Central Lancashire.

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Non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been in use for over 100 years to treat pain, exerting their analgesic effect by inhibiting prostaglandin (PG) synthesis via the COX pathway. Some of the NSAIDs have adverse side effects including ulceration of the stomach and cardiovascular events which are associated with bleeding. Search is still going on to find a safe NSAID. Two new coxib NSAIDs, namely celecoxib and etoricoxib have been developed and they exert marked beneficial effects in reducing pain in humans and other small animals with little or no side effects. No such study has been done on horses to see if they can tolerate the drug as an analgesic pain killer. This study was designed to investigate the effects of the two coxib NSAIDs, celecoxib and etoricoxib in six retired race horses to determine any adverse side effects of the drugs, the time course changes in their metabolism and elimination once administered orally in known physiological doses and the metabolites produced by each drug over time. The study employed well established clinical and biochemical techniques to measure blood-borne parameters and the metabolism of each drug. The results show that either etoricoxib or celecoxib had no adverse side effects on blood borne parameters and the stomach of the horses. Pharmacokinetic study following oral administration of 2 mg/kg b wt of either celecoxib or etoricoxib to the six race horses showed a Cmax of 1.15 ± 0.3 µg/ml, tmax, to be 4.09 ± 1.60 hr and a terminal half- life of 15.52 ± 1.99hr for celecoxib and a Cmax of 1.0± 0.09 µg/ml, tmax of 0.79 ± 0.1 hr and, terminal half- life of 11.51 ± 1.56 hr, respectively for etoricoxib. The results also show that each coxib is metabolized in the horse and both the parent drug and its metabolites are found in the urine, plasma and faeces. The results have also shown that even small traces of either drug or its metabolites can be measured in urine samples even 120 hours following oral administration. The main metabolites found in plasma, urine and faeces are hydroxyl celecoxib and carboxycelecoxib when celecoxib was administered orally to the 6 retired race horses. Similarly, hydroxymethyletoricoxib, carboxylic etoricoxib, hydroxymethyl-1-N-oxide metabolite of etoricoxib and hydroxymethyletoricoxib glucuronide were also found in plasma, urine and faeces following oral administration etoricoxib .to the animals. The results for either horse haeptocytes or camel liver show to some extend similar metabolites. In conclusion, the results show that both drugs have no adverse side effects in the horse and their metabolites are completely eliminated within 120 hours following oral administration.

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